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Childhood obesity: increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

a new study, researchers at the University of California-San Diego School of Medicine find that obese children have higher risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and heart problems. The team publishes the findings in PLOS ONE.
stomach of obese child
Children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are at greater risk for heart attacks and strokes.

High blood pressure and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are considered to be emerging health problems related to the childhood obesity epidemic. NAFLD is the inappropriate storage of droplets of fat inside liver cells, and it affects nearly 10% of all children in the US.

The condition is also the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the US. NAFLD is most common among overweight children and teenagers, and it can develop in conjunction with diabetes and other health problems.

The National Institutes of Health Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network recruited 484 children aged 2-17 years old who had NAFLD. The participants had their blood pressure taken at the start of the study and again at 48 weeks.

At the start of the study, nearly 36% of the group had high blood pressure. At 48 weeks, around 21% of the group had persistent high blood pressure. High blood pressure was present in 2-5% of all children and 10% of obese children.

The study also reports that girls are significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared with boys.

Blood pressure evaluation, control and monitoring should be ‘integral’ to care

Lead author Dr. Jeffrey Schwimmer, in the Department of Pediatrics at UC-San Diego School of Medicine describes the results:

“Along with being at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, we found that children with NAFLD who had high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have more fat in their liver than children without high blood pressure. This could lead to a more serious form of liver disease.”

Dr. Schwimmer and colleagues recommend that blood pressure evaluation, control and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

Children with NAFLD are at greater risk for heart attacks and strokes. Also, high blood pressure is a main cause of preventable death and disability, remind the authors, and its origin often occurs in childhood.

Although there are no currently approved treatments for children with NAFLD, there are treatments for high blood pressure. Dr. Schwimmer argues that blood pressure control may be useful for decreasing the risk of premature cardiovascular disease in children.

“Parents and doctors need to be aware of the health risks of children who have NAFLD,” he says. “The sooner high blood pressure is identified and treated in this patient population, the healthier they will be as they transition into adulthood.”


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Yogurt could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes

cent study conducted by researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health has found an association between yogurt consumption and type 2 diabetes risk, suggesting that increased consumption of the food could lower the risk of the condition developing.
Bottle of probiotic yogurt.
Yogurts contain probiotics – micro-organisms that play an important role in regulating digestion and intestinal function.

“We found that higher intake of yogurt is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas other dairy foods and consumption of total dairy did not show this association,” says senior researcher Dr. Frank Hu. “The consistent findings for yogurt suggest that it can be incorporated into a healthy dietary pattern.”

The study, published in BMC Medicine and funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), sought to assess the association between total and individual types of dairy consumption with the incidence of type 2 diabetes among adults.

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar levels. Around 90% of diabetes cases are type 2 diabetes, whereby the body either does not produce enough insulin or suffers from insulin resistance, meaning that the insulin produced is unable to process glucose properly.

In the US, type 2 diabetes affects approximately 26 million people. Worldwide, around 366 million people are affected, with this number estimated to rise to 552 million by 2030.

People with type 2 diabetes are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease and stroke.

Participants’ dairy consumption and medical history followed in study

For the study, the researchers compiled the results of three large cohort studies. These studies recorded the medical histories and lifestyle habits of health professionals, including dentists, nurses, pharmacists, podiatrists, physicians and vets. A total of 194,519 participants were eligible for the study.

All participants filled out a health and lifestyle questionnaire at the beginning of the study and were followed up every 2 years with further questionnaires. All participants were free from diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at the start of the study, and participants were excluded if they did not include information in their questionnaires about dairy consumption.

Within the three samples, a total of 15,156 cases of type 2 diabetes were identified during the follow-up period. Overall, no association was found between total dairy consumption and type 2 diabetes.

Consumption of individual dairy products such as cheese, skimmed milk, whole milk and yogurt was analyzed. After adjusting their findings for dietary factors and chronic disease factors such as age and BMI, the researchers found an association between high yogurt intake and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes development.

A meta-analysis was then carried out, comparing these findings with those from other studies that had examined the association between dairy products and type 2 diabetes up until March 2013. This analysis found that eating a 28 g serving of yogurt every day was associated with an 18% lower risk of type 2 diabetes developing.

Randomized clinical trials required

Prior to this study, earlier research had suggested that the presence of calcium, magnesium or certain fatty acids within dairy products could lower type 2 diabetes risk. It is now thought that probiotic bacteria in yogurt, with their fat profile and antioxidant status improving qualities, could lower the risk.

“Our study benefited from having such a large sample size, high rates of follow up and repeated assessment of dietary and lifestyle factors,” says lead author Mu Chen.

The authors also acknowledge that their study has its limitations. Although large, the cohort samples predominantly consisted of health professionals of European ancestry, suggesting that the findings may not be representative of the whole population. Furthermore, the findings of the study are observational and do not guarantee causation.

“The consistent findings for yogurt suggest that it can be incorporated into a healthy dietary pattern,” write the authors. “However, randomized clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal effects of yogurt consumption as well as probiotics on body weight and insulin resistance.”


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26 Pictures Will Make You Re-Evaluate Your Entire Existence

. This is the Earth! This is where you live.

This is the Earth! This is where you live.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image / Via visibleearth.nasa.gov

2. And this is where you live in your neighborhood, the solar system.

And this is where you live in your neighborhood, the solar system.

3. Here’s the distance, to scale, between the Earth and the moon. Doesn’t look too far, does it?

Here's the distance, to scale, between the Earth and the moon. Doesn't look too far, does it?

4. THINK AGAIN. Inside that distance you can fit every planet in our solar system, nice and neatly.

THINK AGAIN. Inside that distance you can fit every planet in our solar system, nice and neatly.

PerplexingPotato / Via reddit.com

5. But let’s talk about planets. That little green smudge is North America on Jupiter.

But let's talk about planets. That little green smudge is North America on Jupiter.

NASA / John Brady / Via astronomycentral.co.uk

6. And here’s the size of Earth (well, six Earths) compared with Saturn:

And here's the size of Earth (well, six Earths) compared with Saturn:

NASA / John Brady / Via astronomycentral.co.uk

7. And just for good measure, here’s what Saturn’s rings would look like if they were around Earth:

And just for good measure, here's what Saturn's rings would look like if they were around Earth:

Ron Miller / Via io9.com

8. This right here is a comet. We just landed a probe on one of those bad boys. Here’s what one looks like compared with Los Angeles:

This right here is a comet. We just landed a probe on one of those bad boys. Here's what one looks like compared with Los Angeles:

Matt Wang / Via mentalfloss.com

9. But that’s nothing compared to our sun. Just remember:

But that's nothing compared to our sun. Just remember:

10. Here’s you from the moon:

Here's you from the moon:

NASA

11. Here’s you from Mars:

Here's you from Mars:

NASA

12. Here’s you from just behind Saturn’s rings:

Here's you from just behind Saturn's rings:

NASA

13. And here’s you from just beyond Neptune, 4 billion miles away.

And here's you from just beyond Neptune, 4 billion miles away.

NASA

To paraphrase Carl Sagan, everyone and everything you have ever known exists on that little speck.

14. Let’s step back a bit. Here’s the size of Earth compared with the size of our sun. Terrifying, right?

Let's step back a bit. Here's the size of Earth compared with the size of our sun. Terrifying, right?

John Brady / Via astronomycentral.co.uk

The sun doesn’t even fit in the image.

15. And here’s that same Sun from the surface of Mars:

And here's that same Sun from the surface of Mars:

NASA

16. But that’s nothing. Again, as Carl once mused, there are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on every beach on Earth:

But that's nothing. Again, as Carl once mused, there are more stars in space than there are grains of sand on every beach on Earth:

17. Which means that there are ones much, much bigger than little wimpy sun. Just look at how tiny and insignificant our sun is:

Which means that there are ones much, much bigger than little wimpy sun. Just look at how tiny and insignificant our sun is:

Our sun probably gets its lunch money stolen.

18. Here’s another look. The biggest star, VY Canis Majoris, is 1,000,000,000 times bigger than our sun:

26 Pictures Will Make You Re-Evaluate Your Entire Existence

………

19. But none of those compares to the size of a galaxy. In fact, if you shrunk the Sun down to the size of a white blood cell and shrunk the Milky Way Galaxy down using the same scale, the Milky Way would be the size of the United States:

But none of those compares to the size of a galaxy. In fact, if you shrunk the Sun down to the size of a white blood cell and shrunk the Milky Way Galaxy down using the same scale, the Milky Way would be the size of the United States:

20. That’s because the Milky Way Galaxy is huge. This is where you live inside there:

That's because the Milky Way Galaxy is huge. This is where you live inside there:

21. But this is all you ever see:

But this is all you ever see:

(That’s not a picture of the Milky Way, but you get the idea.)

22. But even our galaxy is a little runt compared with some others. Here’s the Milky Way compared to IC 1011, 350 million light years away from Earth:

But even our galaxy is a little runt compared with some others. Here's the Milky Way compared to IC 1011, 350 million light years away from Earth:

Just THINK about all that could be inside there.

23. But let’s think bigger. In JUST this picture taken by the Hubble telescope, there are thousands and thousands of galaxies, each containing millions of stars, each with their own planets.

But let's think bigger. In JUST this picture taken by the Hubble telescope, there are thousands and thousands of galaxies, each containing millions of stars, each with their own planets.

24. Here’s one of the galaxies pictured, UDF 423. This galaxy is 10 BILLION light years away. When you look at this picture, you are looking billions of years into the past.

Here's one of the galaxies pictured, UDF 423. This galaxy is 10 BILLION light years away. When you look at this picture, you are looking billions of years into the past.

Some of the other galaxies are thought to have formed only a few hundred million years AFTER the Big Bang.

25. And just keep this in mind — that’s a picture of a very small, small part of the universe. It’s just an insignificant fraction of the night sky.

And just keep this in mind — that's a picture of a very small, small part of the universe. It's just an insignificant fraction of the night sky.

26. And, you know, it’s pretty safe to assume that there are some black holes out there. Here’s the size of a black hole compared with Earth’s orbit, just to terrify you:

And, you know, it's pretty safe to assume that there are some black holes out there. Here's the size of a black hole compared with Earth's orbit, just to terrify you:

D. Benningfield/K. Gebhardt/StarDate / Via mcdonaldobservatory.org

So if you’re ever feeling upset about your favorite show being canceled or the fact that they play Christmas music way too early — just remember…

This is your home.

This is your home.

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

This is what happens when you zoom out from your home to your solar system.

This is what happens when you zoom out from your home to your solar system.

And this is what happens when you zoom out farther…

And this is what happens when you zoom out farther...

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

And farther…

And farther...

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

Keep going…

Keep going...

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

Just a little bit farther…

Just a little bit farther...

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

Almost there…

Almost there...

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons

And here it is. Here’s everything in the observable universe, and here’s your place in it. Just a tiny little ant in a giant jar.

And here it is. Here's everything in the observable universe, and here's your place in it. Just a tiny little ant in a giant jar.

By Andrew Z. Colvin (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (creativecommons.org) or GFDL (gnu.org)], via Wikimedia Commons


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Acupuncture and Weight Loss Does It Work?

The Facts on Obesity:

archana-ram-acupunctureThe World Health Organization (WHO) updated the facts about being overweight on their website, stating the following:
– Worldwide obesity has nearly doubled since 1980
– In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese
– 35% of adults aged 20 and over were overweight in 2008, and 11% were obese
– 65% of the world’s population live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight
– More than 40 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or obese in 2012
– Obesity is preventable

Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The WHO reports that being overweight was once considered a problem only in high income countries, but today overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings.

As more people struggle with weight loss, many are considering alternative methods, like gastro-intestinal surgeries, extreme cleansing diets, that are really only for the short term, also diets that are termed yo-yo or fad diets.

But still others have considered acupuncture for weight loss. There are those who would immediately discard something like acupuncture, but there are others who insist that the benefits are real and that acupuncture dose help.

What Is Acupuncture?

What is acupuncture, and can it be used for weight loss? Acupuncture originated in ancient China, and it is a process through the use of needles (as thin as hair strains) that are placed at certain points on a person’s skin.

Acupuncture originates in the belief that the yin-yang forces flow along invisible pathways in the body called meridians, and that illness results from an imbalance in these forces, or the blockage of these forces. Acupuncture can relieve limited amounts of pain temporarily, though no physical or medical model exists yet to explain acupuncture.

Can Acupuncture really work for weight loss?

Putting the argument aside, that is if acupuncture really works for weight loss, consider the many things that acupuncture can do that at the very least, can assist in weight loss.

Relieves Stress

According to Jane Jakubczak, a registered dietitian at the University of Maryland, she states, “Emotional eating is eating for reasons other than hunger. Instead of the physical symptom of hunger initiating the eating, an emotion triggers the eating.”

When your stress and sad it could be ice cream, cookies, potato chips, or any other type of junk food you reach for. This is where acupuncture comes into play. The process of acupuncture is relaxing, and when you are relaxed, you are far less stressed. When you are less stressed, there is no emotional eating. When stress is under control, so is the urge of emotional eating.

Boost Metabolism and Suppress Appetite

The practice of acupuncture also attests that it can boost metabolism and suppress appetite. It can improve typical body functions to assist you in purging your body of toxins and promotes an internal balancing that leads to a general improvement in mental and physical health.

All of these benefits are key parts in maintaining a healthy weight. Unhappy people eat more, and an improvement of body function as well as mental health can help with weight loss, and maintaining a healthy weight.

Acupuncture and Weight Loss Does It Work?

The questions is, will acupuncture work for you? With the different diets and weight loss programs, all having different approaches, each individual has very different results when it comes to weight loss. Each person loses weight at their own speed, and what works for your friend or family member, might not work for you.

At best, most diets are just short term, and have no real focus on your nutritional needs for good health. Everyone who has had success using acupuncture to lose weight admits that it is not a magical cure. It still takes focus on eating healthy and incorporating regular exercise into the weight loss plan. Ideal weight loss typically happens at one or two pounds per week, which any medical professional will report is a healthy way to shed those pounds.

Some diet plans say “Loss 100 pounds in 1, 2, or 3 months.” Maybe some have done it, but it is taxing on the heart, and not good for your health in the long run. Slow and steady over time works far better than quick and immediate. You will have a better chance at keeping that weight off.

Guidelines for Acupuncture to succeed :

If you have decided to use acupuncture as an aid to losing weight, follow these guidelines to have the best opportunity to succeed with acupuncture:
 Find an accredited acupuncturist. Most reputable locations require acupuncturists to be accredited and licensed. Be certain yours is.
 Follow through with the full session plan (typically can be 4 to 8 sessions). Just as you cannot lose weight overnight by cutting calories or going to the gym for only a few hours, neither can you attend just one or two sessions.
 Healthy diet – Acupuncture and Weight Loss Does It Work?Remember that the key is a healthy diet, and exercise to losing weight. You could visit an acupuncturist five days a week, but if you don’t follow a healthy diet or have an exercise plan in place you won’t see the results you want, expect, and can have.

Remember, losing weight in a healthy way, isn’t over night or even in two weeks to a month. As it took time to gain the weight, so it will take time to lose it. Acupuncture can be an aid, and should only be considered an aid to losing weight along with a healthy diet and exercise.

Lastly, you don’t have to eat less to lose weight, just eat right.


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2014 Ozone Hole Update

The Antarctic ozone hole reached its annual peak size on Sept. 11, according to scientists from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The size of this year’s hole was 24.1 million square kilometers (9.3 million square miles) — an area roughly the size of North America.

splash

This image shows ozone concentrations above Antarctica on Sept. 11, 2014. Image Credit: NASA. See also NASA’s Ozone Hole Watch website

The single-day maximum area was similar to that in 2013, which reached 24.0 million square kilometers (9.3 million square miles). The largest single-day ozone hole ever recorded by satellite was 29.9 million square kilometers (11.5 million square miles) on Sept. 9, 2000. Overall, the 2014 ozone hole is smaller than the large holes of the 1998–2006 period, and is comparable to 2010, 2012, and 2013.

With the increased atmospheric chlorine levels present since the 1980s, the Antarctic ozone hole forms and expands during the Southern Hemisphere spring (August and September). The ozone layer helps shield life on Earth from potentially harmful ultraviolet radiation that can cause skin cancer and damage plants.

The Montreal Protocol agreement beginning in 1987 regulated ozone depleting substances, such as chlorine-containing chlorofluorocarbons and bromine-containing halons. The 2014 level of these substances over Antarctica has declined about 9 percent below the record maximum in 2000.

“Year-to-year weather variability significantly impacts Antarctica ozone because warmer stratospheric temperatures can reduce ozone depletion,” said Paul A. Newman, chief scientist for atmospheres at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “The ozone hole area is smaller than what we saw in the late-1990s and early 2000s, and we know that chlorine levels are decreasing. However, we are still uncertain about whether a long-term Antarctic stratospheric temperature warming might be reducing this ozone depletion.”

image

The graphs above show the progress of the 2014 ozone hole. The gray shading indicates the highest and lowest values measured since 1979. The red numbers are the maximum or minimum observed values. The stratospheric temperature and the amount of sunlight reaching the south polar region control the depth and size of the Antarctic ozone hole. [more]

Scientists are working to determine if the ozone hole trend over the last decade is a result of temperature increases or chorine declines. An increase of stratospheric temperature over Antarctica would decrease the ozone hole’s area. Satellite and ground-based measurements show that chlorine levels are declining, but stratospheric temperature analyses in that region are less reliable for determining long-term trends.

Scientists also found that the minimum thickness of ozone layer this year was recorded at 114 Dobson units on Sept. 30, compared to 250-350 Dobson units during the 1960s. Over the last 50 years satellite and ground-based records over Antarctica show ozone column amounts ranging from 100 to 400 Dobson units, which translates to about 1 millimeter (1/25 inch) to 5 millimeters (1/6 inch) of ozone in a layer if all of the ozone were brought down to the surface.

The ozone data come from the Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA’s Aura satellite and the Ozone Monitoring and Profiler Suite instrument on the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. NOAA measurements at South Pole station monitor the ozone layer above that location by means of Dobson spectrophotometer and regular ozone-sonde balloon launches that record the thickness of the ozone layer and its vertical distribution. Chlorine amounts are estimated using NOAA and NASA ground measurements and observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder aboard NASA’s Aura satellite.

NASA and NOAA are mandated under the Clean Air Act to monitor ozone-depleting gases and stratospheric depletion of ozone. Scientists from NASA and NOAA have been monitoring the ozone layer and the concentrations of ozone-depleting substances and their breakdown products from the ground and with a variety of instruments on satellites and balloons since the 1970s. These observations allow us to provide a continuous long-term record to track the long-term and year-to-year evolution of ozone amounts.


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How Notorious HIV Is Being Hijacked To Tackle Cancer

HIV is one of the deadliest viruses encountered by humans in recent history and will kill 1.5m people this year alone, compare this to Ebola, for example, which has killed less than 5,000 so far, and you get an idea of how big a problem HIV still is. Such an obvious foe to humanity would seem to be an unlikely choice to save lives, then, but increasingly it is being used to tackle another killer disease – cancer.

A new era in the understanding of our DNA was kick-started by the completion of the human genome project in 2001, giving us more insight than ever before into our DNA and how it can cause disease when something goes wrong with it. Cancer is universally caused by abnormalities in DNA, some of which are the result of preventable triggers such as smoking, but many of which may be the consequence of a small risk of mistakes every time our infinitely complicated DNA is copied as part of normal cell growth.

Immortal cells

Researchers frequently use samples from people with cancer to find out more about the disease but these often quickly perish in the lab from being outside the body. To overcome this, researchers have an arsenal of different types of “immortal cells” called cell lines, which keep dividing and growing over time and have special modifications in their DNA to allow them to live in artificial conditions that mimic the human body in the laboratory.

There are cell lines from cancers of the blood, breast and lung among many others, but these often have countless numbers of DNA abnormalities and it can be difficult to pinpoint which one, or combination of abnormalities, is responsible for making the cell cancerous. Scientists often want to look at specific genetic changes, which they think contribute to a healthy cell becoming a cancer cell – and this is where HIV can be utilised.

Like many viruses, HIV functions by inserting its DNA, the genetic code which is the blueprint for its structure and actions, into the DNA of human cells. If successful, this viral DNA is then indistinguishable from human DNA to the cell, meaning that when the cell divides, it dutifully copies not just its own DNA but the viral DNA too, creating more viruses.

Hijacking HIV

As exploitative as this process appears, scientists are now able to hijack this unique viral ability to transfer genetic information of their choosing into cells. In just a few days in a well-equipped laboratory, scientists can now cut, copy and paste cancer-contributing DNA into HIV, harvest the virus and infect immortal cell lines, creating an unlimited reservoir of cells which have only a single DNA change compared to non HIV-infected cells. Scientists can then see exactly what the specific piece of abnormal DNA does to the cells, for example how it changes the resilience of the cells to a new chemotherapy drug.

This new-found role of HIV does not end in the laboratory. Last year, online articles and videos circulated widely on social media, claiming that doctors had “cured” an eight-year-old girl called Emily Whitehead of leukaemia (blood cancer) by “injecting her with HIV”. Thismisleading and sensationalist headline obscured what was actually an incredibly promising new avenue in treating cancer.

Doing well. Prayers for Emily/Facebook

T-cells, types of white blood cell, were taken from Emily and infected with modified HIV. The virus obediently transferred its DNA into Emily’s T-cells, but scientists had also deleted the DNA which would normally allow it to replicate, removing the possibility that Emily herself could get HIV from the treatment. This modified HIV carried DNA that allowed the T-cells to track down the leukaemic white blood cells inside Emily’s body and kill them. Emilyremains disease free at the time of writing, over two-and-a half-years after treatment.

Destabilising effects

A major problem in treating cancer is that there are more than 200 different types – and even within a single one of these, leukaemia for example, there are many hundreds of different DNA abnormalities which cause the disease. Effectively, this means that in an ideal world, most people with cancer need “personalised treatments”, which is currently not possible most of the time.

What is unique about the HIV-based treatment is that if the differences between cancer cells and healthy cells can be identified in each patient, HIV can be used to mobilise the immune system against a wide range of these abnormal cells and designed to suit the needs of individual patients.

Notwithstanding early successes with Emily and a handful of other individuals, the treatment is still in the early stages of development, with many hurdles to overcome before it can truly be considered a major breakthrough. Too many T-cells can cause dangerous side effects by destabilising the normal functions of the immune system. Despite eventually recovering, Emily was unfortunate enough to experience these.

Leukaemia is also a comparatively easy cancer to target, as many of the cancerous cells are in the blood and easily reached by therapies injected directly into the bloodstream, whereas in cancerous tumours, many cells are more difficult to reach. Although promising, and definitely innovative, it remains to be proven whether HIV-based therapies can overcome this longstanding problem.

Years of research into HIV may not have been able to eradicate it yet, but it has resulted in a most unlikely and welcome ally in the fight against cancer.

this longstanding problem.

Years of research into HIV may not have been able to eradicate it yet, but it has resulted in a most unlikely and welcome ally in the fight against cancer.